There are more than sixty identifiable components in bee venom:
Melittin– 50% of weight of dry venom.
Peptide 401/Mast Cell Degranulating Peptide- 3%
Phospholipase A2– 12%
Activates immune system
Stimulates pituitary-cortical system secretion of cortisol
Immediate inflammatory effect
Secondary anti-Inflammatory effect
Improves blood circulation
Decreases sense of pain.
Honey bee venom contains at least 18 active substances. Melittin, the most prevalent substance, is one of the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known (100 times more potent than hydrocortisol). Adolapin is another strong anti-inflammatory substance, and inhibits cycooxygenase; it thus has analgesic activity as well. Apamin inhibits complement C3 activity, and blocks calcium-dependent potassium channels, thus enhancing nerve transmission. Other substances, such as Compound X, Hyaluronidase, Phospholipase A2, Histamine, and Mast Cell Degranulating Protein (MSDP), are involved in the inflammatory response of venom, with the softening of tissue and the facilitation of flow of the other substances. Finally, there are measurable amounts of the neurotransmitters, Dopamine, Norepinephrine and Seratonin.