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Until now, over 200 chemical compounds have already been identified in the Brazilian Propolis including flavonoids, terpenoids, aldehydes, aromatic acids, aliphatic alcohols and ethers, amino acids, steroids, sugars etc. These compounds permit various physiological activities already proved scientifically, which include anti-micro biotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiviral and anti-tumor properties.



Brazilian propolis is quite different from others produced all over the world.

There are two main reasons for this. The first one is the type of bees. In Brazil we work with the Africanized Honey Bee (apis melifera scutelata). This special kind of bees has a different way to collect propolis in the plants. If there are 2 types of bees in an area, Africanized Honey Bees and European Honey Bees, they will produce different kinds of propolis.

The second reason is the bio diversity of Brazilian flora. In North Hemisphere propolis is produced mainly by 2 types of plants. In Brazil, Propolis is found in more than 300 different types of plants.

Researches made in Brazil and mainly in Japan show that the Green Type Propolis produced in some areas of So Paulo and Minas Gerais States in Brazil has the most contents of phenolic compounds, specially the flavonoids, and some esters very important to control some diseases, such as cancer.




Anti-influenza virus activity of propolis in vitro and its efficacy against influenza infection in mice.

Shimizu T, Hino A, Tsutsumi A, Park YK, Watanabe W, Kurokawa M.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, Nobeoka, Miyazaki, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Propolis has been used worldwide as a dietary supplement to maintain and improve human health. We examined whether ethanol extracts of Brazilian propolis exhibit antiviral activity against influenza virus in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Among 13 ethanol extracts screened in a plaque reduction assay, four showed anti-influenza virus activity. The anti-influenza efficacy of the four extracts was further examined in a murine influenza virus infection model. The mice were infected intranasally with influenza virus, and the four extracts were orally administered at 10 mg/kg three times daily for seven successive days after infection. RESULTS: In this infection model, only one extract, AF-08, was significantly effective at 10 mg/kg in reducing the body weight loss of infected mice. The doses of 2 and 10 mg/kg were also effective in prolonging the survival times of infected mice significantly, but 0.4 mg/kg was not. The anti-influenza efficacy of AF-08 at 10 mg/kg was confirmed in a dose-dependent manner in mice. AF-08 at 10 mg/kg significantly reduced virus yields in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of lungs in infected mice as compared with the control. The reduction of virus yields by AF-08 at 10 mg/kg significantly corresponded to those induced by oseltamivir at 1 mg/kg twice daily from day 1 to day 4 after infection. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian propolis AF-08 was indicated to possess anti-influenza virus activity and to ameliorate influenza symptoms in mice. AF-08 may be a possible candidate for an anti-influenza dietary supplement for humans.

PMID: 18610553 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Patient Drug Information

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu ) Oseltamivir is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in adults and children (older than 1 year of age) who have had symptoms of the flu for no longer than 2 days. This medication is also used to prevent...

Source: AHFS Consumer Medication Information




Published in Cancer Detection and Prevention 1998; 22(6):506-515.

Apoptosis and Suppression of Tumor Growth by Artepillin C Extracted From Brazilian Propolis

Tetsuo Kimoto, M.D., Ph.D.,a Shigeyuki Arai, D.V.M., Ph.D.,a Michihiro Kohguchi, B.S., a Miho Aga, B.Pharm.,a Yutaka Nomura, B.S., a Mark J. Micallef, Ph.D.,a Masashi Kurimoto, M.S.,a and Keiichiro Mito, Ph.D.b

ABSTRACT: Artepillin C was extracted from Brazilian propolis. Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) has a molecular weight of 300.40 and possesses antibacterial activity. When artepillin C was applied to human and murine malignant tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, artepillin C exhibited a cytotoxic effect and the growth of tumor cells was clearly inhibited. The artepillin C was found to cause significant damage to solid tumor and leukemic cells by the MTT assay, DNA synthesis assay, and morphological observation in vitro. When xenografts of human tumor cells were transplanted into nude mice, the cytotoxic effects of artepillin C were most noticeable in carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Apoptosis, abortive mitosis, and massive necrosis combined were identified by histological observation after intratumor injection of 500 μg of artepillin C three times a week. In addition to suppression of tumor growth, there was an increase in the ratio of CD4/CD8 T cells, and in the total number of helper T cells. These findings indicate that artepillin C activates the immune system, and possesses direct antitumor activity.


Published in Anticancer Res. 2001 Jan-Feb;21(1A):221-8.

Apoptosis of human leukemia cells induced by Artepillin C, an active ingredient of Brazilian propolis.

Kimoto T, Aga M, Hino K, Koya-Miyata S, Yamamoto Y, Micallef MJ, Hanaya T, Arai S, Ikeda M, Kurimoto M.

Fujisaki Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories Inc., Fujisaki 675-1, Okayama 702-8006, Japan.

Artepillin C (3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) is an active ingredient of Brazilian propolis that possesses anti-tumor activity. When Artepillin C was applied to human leukemia cell lines of different phenotypes, namely, lymphocytic leukemia (7 cell lines of T-cell, 5 cell lines of B-cell), myeloid and monocytic leukemia and non-lymphoid non-myeloid leukemia cell lines in vitro, Artepillin C exhibited potent cytocidal effects and induced marked levels of apoptosis in all the cell lines. The most potent effects were observed in the T-cell lines. Apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation were induced in the cell lines after exposure to Artepillin C. DNA synthesis in the leukemia cells was clearly inhibited and disintegration of the cells was confirmed microscopically. Apoptosis of the leukemia cells may be partially associated with enhanced Fas antigen expression and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In contrast, although Artepillin C inhibited the growth of pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated normal blood lymphocytes, it was not cytocidal to normal unstimulated lymphocytes. These results suggested that Artepillin C, an active ingredient of Brazilian propolis, has anti-leukemic effects with limited inhibitory effects on normal lymphocytes.

PMID: 11299738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


For more information see the links below:

    -Antitumor Activity of ARTEPILIN-C

     -Biological Activities of Propolis


Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression and enzyme activity.

Song YS, Park EH, Hur GM, Ryu YS, Lee YS, Lee JY, Kim YM, Jin C.

Bioanalysis and Biotransformation Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 131, Cheongryang, 130-650, Seoul, South Korea.

Since nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been known to be involved in inflammatory and autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction, modulation of NO synthesis or action represents a new approach to the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has been identified to show anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-cancer activities. The present study, therefore, examined effects of CAPE on iNOS expression and activity of iNOS enzyme itself. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with CAPE significantly inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). CAPE also inhibited iNOS mRNA expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) binding activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, transfection of RAW 264.7 cells with iNOS promoter linked to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene, revealed that CAPE inhibited the iNOS promoter activity induced by LPS plus IFN-gamma through the NF-kappaB sites of the iNOS promoter. In addition, CAPE directly interfered with the catalytic activity of murine recombinant iNOS enzyme. These results suggest that CAPE may exert its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the iNOS gene expression at the transcriptional level through the suppression of NF-kappaB activation, and by directly inhibiting the catalytic activity of iNOS.

PMID: 11734336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Immune activation and radioprotection by propolis.

Takagi Y, Choi IS, Yamashita T, Nakamura T, Suzuki I, Hasegawa T, Oshima M, Gu YH.

Graduate School of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science 1001-1 Kishioka-cho, Suzuka-shi, Mie 510-0293, Japan.

In this study, we focused on immune stimulation by Propolis, and examined changes in the effect of irradiation after Propolis administration. We also examined the radioprotective effect of Propolis by observing its effect on the immune system. The effect of immune activation by Propolis was investigated by measuring the total immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM. The radioprotective effect of immune activation by Propolis was investigated by measuring the T-lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of mice following whole body irradiation. Compared with the control group, the IgG was significantly reduced in the Propolis group, indicating that Propolis suppressed IgG production. ELISA revealed that the amount of IgM in mouse serum was significantly higher in the Propolis group as compared with the control group, indicating that Propolis increased IgM production. The number of CD4-positive cells was increased only in the Propolis group. Likewise, the number of CD4-positive cells increased by 81% in the Propolis with irradiation group compared with the irradiation group alone. Compared with the control group, the Propolis group increased CD8-positive cells. Compared with the irradiation alone group, CD8-positive cells were decreased by Propolis with irradiation group. Propolis activated macrophages to stimulate interferon (IFN)-gamma production in association with the secondary activation of T-lymphocytes, resulting in a decrease in IgG and IgM production. Cytokines released from macrophages in mouse peripheral blood after Propolis administration activated helper T-cells to proliferate. In addition, activated macrophages in association with the secondary T-lymphocyte activation increased IFN-gamma production and stimulated proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells and suppressor T-cells, indicating the activation of cell-mediated immune responses.

PMID: 15974482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Anti-AIDS agents. 48.(1) Anti-HIV activity of moronic acid derivatives and the new melliferone-related triterpenoid isolated from Brazilian propolis.

Ito J, Chang FR, Wang HK, Park YK, Ikegaki M, Kilgore N, Lee KH.

Natural Products Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, NC 27599, USA.

A new triterpenoid named melliferone (1), three known triterpenoids, moronic acid (2), anwuweizonic acid (3), and betulonic acid (4), and four known aromatic compounds (5-8) were isolated from Brazilian propolis and tested for anti-HIV activity in H9 lymphocytes. Moronic acid (2) showed significant anti-HIV activity (EC(50) <0.1 microg/mL, TI >186) and was modified to develop more potent anti-AIDS agents.

PMID: 11678650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis by Brazilian propolis: Major component artepillin C inhibits in vitro tube formation and endothelial cell proliferation.

Ahn MR, Kunimasa K,Ohta T,Kumazawa S, Kamihira M, Kaji K, Uto Y, Hori H, Nagasawa H, Nakayama T.

Laboratory of Functional Food Science and COE Program in the 21st Century, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Propolis, a resinous substance collected by honeybees from various plant sources, possesses various physiological activities such as antitumor effects. We have previously shown that propolis of Brazilian origin was composed mainly of artepillin C and that its constituents were quite different from those of propolis of European origin. In this report, we examined an antiangiogenic effects of Brazilian propolis and investigated whether artepillin C was responsible for such effects. In an in vivo angiogenesis assay using ICR mice, we found that the ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis (EEBP) significantly reduced the number of newly formed vessels. EEBP also showed antiangiogenic effects in an in vitro tube formation assay. When compared with other constituents of EEBP, only artepillin C was found to significantly inhibit the tube formation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner (3.13-50mug/ml). In addition, artepillin C significantly suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner (3.13-50mug/ml). Furthermore, artepillin C significantly reduced the number of newly formed vessels in an in vivo angiogenesis assay. Judging from its antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, we concluded that artepillin C at least in part is responsible for the antiangiogenic activity of EEBP in vivo. Artepillin C may prove useful in the development of agents and foods with therapeutic or preventive activity against tumor angiogenesis.

PMID: 17343983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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